- Jan 2 . Marine and USAAF bomb ten Japanese supply-carrying destroyers (RAdm Tomiji) west of Rendova, Solomons; SBD's damage destroyer. Eleven motor torpedo boats attack the force off Cape Esperance without success.
- Jan 2 . Army I Corps (LtGen Eichelberger) captures Buna, New Guinea, significantly reducing the threat to Port Moresby.
- Jan 5 . Helena (CL 50) makes first use of proximity-fuze shells in combat, downing a Japanese "Val" carrier bomber.
Jan 5 . USAAF B-17's and B-24's bomb Japanese shipping at Rabaul, New Britain.
- Jan 6 . USAAF B-17's and B-24's bomb Japanese shipping at Rabaul.
- Jan 7 . USAAF B-17's, B-24's, B-25's and B-2'6s, supported by P-38's and P-40's, and RAAF or RNZAF Hudsons and RAF Catalinas, set upon Japanese convoy bound for Lae, New Guinea.
- Jan 8 . USAAF B-17's, B-24's, B-25's and A-20's, supported by P-38's, attack Japanese convoy unloading off Lae, New Guinea.
- Jan 10. Transport submarine Argonaut (APS-1) attacks convoy SE off New Britain, is sunk by Japanese aircraft and destroyers.
- Jan 11. Nine motor torpedo boats operating from Tulagi attack 8 DD Japanese Reinforcement Unit off Cape Esperance, Guadalcanal.
- Jan 12. TF 8 (RAdm Kinkaid) covers unopposed landing of Army troops to occupy Amchitka, Aleutians. Destroyer Worden (DD-352) runs aground and sinks.
- Jan 14. Casablanca Conference begins. Roosevelt, Churchill, and staffs meet to plan future operations against the Axis.
- Jan 15. The Pentagon dedicated; the highest-capacity office building in the world.
Jan 15. SBD's from Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, and USAAF B-17's, escorted by F4F's and USAAF P-39's, attack nine Japanese destroyers northeast of New Georgia, Solomons, damaging 4.
Jan 15. Japanese attempt to reinforce the Solomons begins as first group of ships --Section A-- three transports accompanied by destroyer, departs Truk for Bougainville. The soldiers are being transferred from China.
Jan 15. USAAF B-24's bomb Japanese convoy, sinking army cargo ship Nichimei Maru and damaging another, about 200 miles south-southwest of Rangoon, Burma. Unknown to the aviators, she is transporting Allied POWs, 500 of whom are lost.
- Jan 17. Section B of Japanese Solomons reinforcement convoy sails from Truk, bound for the Shortlands.
- Jan 18. USAAF B-17's and P-39's sink Japanese cargo vessel Yamafuku Maru off Shortland Island.
- Jan 18. Soviets announce they have broken the Wehrmacht's siege of Leningrad. Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins.
- Jan 19. Japanese land at Wewak, New Guinea.
- Jan 19. Carrier Ranger (CV-4) launches USAAF P-40's off Accra, Gold Coast, for transfer to the North Africa.
- Jan 20. Silversides (SS-236) encounters Section C of Japanese Solomons reinforcement convoy, and sinks army transport Meiu Maru and irreparably damages another.
Jan 20. First destroyer escort type ship, Brennan (DE-13), is commissioned at Mare Island, Cal. First of hundreds.
- Jan 21. Submarine Gato (SS-212) encounters Section B of Japanese Solomons reinforcement convoy and damages army transport just east of Kieta, Bougainville.
- Jan 23. Fall of Sanananda, New Guinea.
Jan 23. British forces capture Tripoli from the Nazis.
Jan 23. Casablanca Conference ends. Major decisions: to invade Sicily, and to delay a cross-channel invasion of the European continent until 1944. With German U-boats taking an increasing toll of Allied shipping in the Battle of the Atlantic, to accord priority to building antisubmarine weapons. Allies will pursue a policy of "Unconditional Surrender" of the Axis.
- Jan 24. Destroyers (RAdm Ainsworth) bombards Japanese fuel and munitions dumps in the Stanmore area, Kolombangara, Solomons.
Jan 24. TBF's, SBD's and F4F's from carrier Saratoga (CV-3) bomb the same objectives.
- Jan 26. Wahoo (SS-238) attacks Japanese convoy about 270 miles north of Dutch New Guinea, sinks four ships.
- Jan 27. 50 US bombers mount the first all American air raid against Germany (Wilhelmshaven).
- Jan 28. Nine submarines form picket line to protect Japanese evacuation of 10,652 troops from Guadalcanal.
- Jan 29. Battle of Rennell Island begins as Japanese land planes attack TF 18 cruisers and destroyers covering the movement of transport force toward Guadalcanal ; damage heavy cruiser Chicago (CA 29), taken under tow.
- Jan 30. Battle of Rennell Island ends as Japanese land planes torpedo and sink crippled Chicago (CA 29).
- Jan 31. Germany surrenders army at Stalingrad.
Jan 31. USMC flying from Guadalcanal sink Japanese transport Toa Maru between Vella Lavella and Kolombangara.
Jan 31. Emperor Hirohito endorsed the decision to withdraw from Guadalcanal.
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